Flexible Selenium Tests via Page Objects

Published: Thu 01 May 2014

tags: testing

A fast, automated suite of unit and integration tests are not enough. At some point you'll need to test your presentation logic. Ideally your domain/business/game logic is stubbed so all you'll need to do at this point is check that the presentation is complete. For example, does view X load view Y? Does an error message appear when an error is raised?

With web sites and web applications the standard tool to use is the excellent Selenium. The problem with UI tests in Selenium is they are often slower to write. Not only this the maintenance cost of such tests can often be much more expensive that other styles of tests. If the cost of such tests is high, the likely hood of developers writing UI tests is low. In my experience there are three types of UI tests in use.

  • Low Level

    Here UI tests are wrote directly against Selenium. This low level approach means tests are scattered with assertions and UI details. For example element locators such as divs and ids will be used with methods on the Selenium driver in question. Despite this low level approach such tests are often quick and dirty to create. The downside to this style of test is that as the volume of tests increase, the cost of maintenance can become very costly. A simple UI change can cause a ripple that will cascade through many test cases.

    - ### Browser Abstraction

    The next level up from direct use of Selenium's driver is to create a facade around the browser or UI itself. For example rather than duplicating the steps to log in within each test you could create a method PerfromLogin(...) which each test could make use of. Another example would be abstracting messier details of UI automation such as clicking a button and waiting for an event. This style of test has the benefits of low level tests but gives some flexibility when it comes to maintenance. The downside with this facade approach is that UI changes can still cause havoc, as each test in question will be tied to the UI elements directly.

    - ### Page Objects

    Taking the browser abstraction to the next level, page objects are an abstraction over the UI itself. These high level tests are wrote in terms of the domain, rather than implementation details. There is of course one place where each page object is bound to a UI element, but as each test uses an object, rather than element locators you only have to change one place when your UI changes. Unlike the previous two styles of tests, page objects incur the most amount of code, though for more than a handful of tests this style of UI acceptance test will pay for itself in no time.

    With the above example the LogInPage object will be bound to UI locators. This will vary based on programming language, but using C# as an example each property would have a specific attribute to link up each element. The domain specific methods such as Username will fill in the correct UI element with the provided value. By writing the objects in a fluent interface style, you can achieve QA friendly tests which are easy to debug when they go wrong.

A more fleshed out example of the Page Object pattern can be found on Github.

Choose a style based on context. Given more than a handful of tests then page objects are worth the extra cost, the ability to evolve your UI while maintaining end to end tests is worth some additional complexity at first.