Loops vs Functional Programming Styles

The following examples are four of the most common functional programming patterns that appear in mainstream languages though they may be known under different names.

Being a fan of CQS and CQRS, queries work great when coding using the functional style. While this is completely subjective in terms of style there is another benefit - composition. In other words the functional styles below can all be joined together with minimal changes. A traditional loop would require additional modifications. The benefit composition provides is similar to the pipes and filter architecture - it is very easy to change the behaviour of the pipeline by simply adding or removing statements.

Composition and concise code aside, traditional loops should not be avoided fully. Each scenario will have different solutions. Sometimes you really just want a standard loop.

The benefit of learning the key concepts behind Map, Filter, ForEach and Reduce is the ability to translate these styles and idioms into other languages that may have the same functionality just behind a different interface.


Also known as Projection. Convert the array into a new array based on the callback provided.


Filter the array based on the callback if the result is true. In the same manner as Map, the non functional version of this code is an extremely common pattern so the functional version really shines here.


Invokes the callback for each member of the array. This is another very common pattern that really benefits from the functional form.


Converts the array into a single value by taking the current index and the next index as parameters to be applied.